Question: How Is VAP Treated?

What is used orally to prevent hospital acquired pneumonia?

Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% oral rinse reduces the incidence of total nosocomial respiratory infection and nonprophylactic systemic antibiotic use in patients undergoing heart surgery..

How is VAP diagnosed?

VAP is most accurately diagnosed by quantitative culture and microscopic examination of lower respiratory tract secretions, which are best obtained by bronchoscopically directed techniques such as the protected specimen brush and bronchoalveolar lavage.

What is the VAP bundle?

Recent findings: The Ventilator Bundle contains four components, elevation of the head of the bed to 30-45 degrees, daily ‘sedation vacation’ and daily assessment of readiness to extubate, peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis, and deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis, aimed to improve outcome in mechanically ventilated …

What does VAP mean?

Ventilator-associated PneumoniaRelated Pages. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a lung infection that develops in a person who is on a ventilator.

How common is VAP?

Eighty-six percent of nosocomial pneumonias are associated with mechanical ventilation and are termed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Between 250,000 and 300,000 cases per year occur in the United States alone, which is an incidence rate of 5 to 10 cases per 1,000 hospital admissions (134, 170).

Which organisms are most commonly found in cultures obtained within the first 4 days of intubation?

Early onset VAP is defined as pneumonia that occurs within 4 days and this is usually attributed to antibiotic sensitive pathogens whereas late onset VAP is more likely caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria and emerges after 4 days of intubation [1], [4].

Why is hospital acquired pneumonia such a large problem?

Pneumonia that starts in the hospital tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off germs. The types of germs present in a hospital are often more dangerous and more resistant to treatment than those outside in the community.

How do ventilators cause pneumonia?

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) results from the invasion of the lower respiratory tract and lung parenchyma by microorganisms. Intubation compromises the integrity of the oropharynx and trachea and allows oral and gastric secretions to enter the lower airways.

Can being intubated cause pneumonia?

Nosocomial pneumonia remains a common complication in patients treated with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation and continues to have a significant impact on the mortality rate of these patients.

What is VAP protocol?

The IHI VAP-prevention bundle includes the following strategies: Semirecumbent patient positioning, to at least 30 degrees. Ventilator weaning, via periodic sedation vacations and daily assessment of extubation readiness. Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) prophylaxis. Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis.

What is the most common cause of hospital acquired pneumonia?

The most common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia is microaspiration of bacteria that colonize the oropharynx and upper airways in seriously ill patients.

Is hospital acquired pneumonia viral or bacterial?

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus.

How can VAP be prevented in ICU patients?

To reduce risk for VAP, the following nurse-led evidence-based practices are recommended: reduce exposure to mechanical ventilation, provide excellent oral care and subglottic suctioning, promote early mobility, and advocate for adequate nurse staffing and a healthy work environment.

What bacteria causes VAP?

Common causative pathogens of VAP include Gramnegative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter species, and Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus9-14.

What is the treatment for hospital acquired pneumonia?

The recommended antibiotics for the treatment of suspected MSSA infections include piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, levofloxacin, imipenem, and meropenem. When the pathogen is confirmed as MSSA, the patient should be switched to oxacillin, nafcillin, or cefazolin.